The obligatory acts of wudhu:
The following acts are mandatory for the wudhu (ablution) to be valid. If any of them are not done, then the wudhu must be redone.
- The intention (to do it in obedience to Allah or to please Him) ‑ the intention is in the heart, not spoken out aloud.
- Washing the face, at least once.
- Washing the forearms, including the elbows, at least once.
- Wiping over a portion of the head.
- Washing the feet, including the ankles, at least once.
The Sunnah (recommended) acts of wudhu:
The Sunnah is what the Prophet (e) practiced and which Muslims are encouraged to follow. These acts are not mandatory for the completion of wudhu, but whoever does them gains additional reward. This does not mean that they should be left out.
- Saying, “Bismillaahir-raحْmaanir-raحِeem” (In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful) at the beginning.
- Using a Miswak (tooth stick) or toothbrush before wudhu.
- Beginning by washing the hands three times, then rinse out the mouth and nose three times.
- Washing the face three times and (for men) rubbing water into the beard
- Washing the forearms three times, beginning with the right side.
- Wiping over the head, then the ears once.
- Washing the feet, including the ankles and between the toes, three times, beginning with the right.
- Avoiding interruptions in the middle of wudhu.
- Avoiding wasting water.
- Praying two rak’at after wudhu.
About wiping over the socks during wudhu:
It is permissible for a resident to perform wudhu with his footwear on for one day and one night, and three days and three nights for a traveler.
The validity of wudhu performed with socks or boots on remains effective from the first time wiping over them took place.
Conditions of wiping over the socks or boots:
- The boots or socks must cover up to (and including) the ankles. You cannot wipe over your shoes (if they do not cover your ankles), instead take off your shoes and wipe over your socks.
- They must have been worn (put on) when a person had a valid wudhu. Meaning that if you were not in the state of wudhu when you put on your socks or boots, then you cannot wipe over them.
- Wiping over the boots or socks is nullified once the validity period elapses.
- Seminal discharge invalidates wiping over the boots or socks.
- Removing the boots or socks after having wiped over them, invalidates the wudhu.
- Wet your hands with water and wipe with it the upper part of the boot, or socks (from the toes upwards).
- Once only.
- Right foot first, using your right hand, followed by the left foot, using your left hand.
- It is also permissible to wipe over the turban, and ladies head cover for a period similar to the period of wiping over the socks, with the same conditions.
- It is also permissible to wipe over a cast on the arm or leg as long as the cast is on, regardless if it was put on before or after wudhu.
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